After reading some questions, I am getting lost with stage photography, curtain photography? etc.. I only know portrait, landscape, street, sports etc..is there a standard lingo somewhere?
There are a lot of categories, some more well known than others. There is no specified standard for categories, so it's just up to what people use.
If you make a web search for a category, you will see approximately how well used it is. Stage photography for example is well known, but curtain photography is not used enough to even show up before a bunch of photographers with the last name Curtain or photographcs of actual curtains (unless it actually means taking photos of curtains...).
The PhotoSig website for example have chosen to use these categories:
Abstract Aerial Animal Architecture Astrophotography Avian Black and White Cityscape Current Events Decisive Moment Defocused Documentary Emotive Expression Family Fashion Film Fine Art Food Glamour HDRI (High Dynamic Range Imaging) Humorous ICM (intentional camera movement) Industrial Infrared Interior Journalism Landscape Lomo Macro Nature Nude Panoramas/Mosaics Performance Pinhole Portrait Product Publicity Random Recycled Art Rough Camera Rural Sea and Sand Sky Snapshot Sports Still Life Stock Street Photography Suburban Swimsuit Tourist Travel Underwater Urban Vehicle Vintage Weather Wedding
Guffa's answer is extremely complete, so I'll take a bit of a different tack. There are a few "major" and "minor" categories of photography that I think are pretty common, and regularly used in photographic jargon:
For any noun X, adding "photography" after it gives you a potential category. Thus you can find all potential categories by taking a dictionary and filtering out any word that's not a noun.
Some of those may in practice overlap of course, and some might be so obscure that noone practices them.
I am considering using the 5 W's (Where, When, What, Who, Why) to catergories my portfolio starting with the following words:
When - When did it take place? or what event took place? Who - People - Who was involved? or what group of people? Where - Location - Where did it take place? Why - Why did this happen? was this a news/sports/wedding event What- What happened? or what is in the photograph? What is the subject?
Some authors add a sixth question, “how”, to the list: How did it happen?